Winfred Mugge, Alexander G. Munts, Alfred C. Schouten, Frans C.T. van der Helm
“Modeling movement disorders—CRPS-related dystonia explained by abnormal propioceptive reflexes.” – Journal of Biomechanics: November 23, 2011

Anthony B. Sims, DDS and Mark S. Cooper, PhD
“Suppression of movement disorders by jaw realignment” Academic research paper with excellent bibliography by Anthony B. Sims, DDS, Private Practice, 8865 Stanford Blvd, Columbia, MD, USA; Mark S. Cooper, PhD, Department of Biology, University of Washington, , Seattle (WA), USA.

Excellent insight on the biomechanical struccture of the masticatory system and how it works as a class 1 lever machine when the teeth interlock. He has developped  “rectifiers,” intraoral appliances that are ment to stretch and allign the cervical spine, lift the skull and streighten body posture, taking advantage of lever mechanics.

A. Viswanath and S.M. Gordon
Two cases of oromandibular dystonia referred as temporomandibular joint disorder

The Journal of Craniomandibular Practice: “Tourette’s syndrome: a pilot study for the discontinuance of a movement disorder”

Tourette’s Syndrome is due to a structural deformity which manifests itself as a neurological problem. It is a structural-reflex disorder, and this pilot study of multiple cases shows how and why Tourette’s and its multiple co-morbid disorders can be discontinued with a device that requires no medicines or surgery called the Neurocranio Vertical Distractor (NCVD).

Dr. Dweight Jennings, DDS
Dr. Jenning’s from Alameda (California) carries out research and treatments that show and document how movement disorders as well as Parkinson’s responds to jaw alignment therapy in the majority of cases with substantial improvement in multiple aspects. This phenomenon and multiple case histories have been presented at multiple dental pain and orthodontic symposiums. Please see attached article for more detail on treatment of Parkinson’s with jaw orthopedics. A good article is also available on treatment of tourettes (tourette pdf) with jaw orthopedics.

Dr. Brendan Stack, DDS, MD

Dr. Stack is a university trained orthodontist who has been treating craniofacial pain and TMJ/TMD disorders since 1965. He also very successfully treats the abnormal head and face, neck and shoulder movement disorders associated with Tourette’s syndrome, Torticollis and Parkinson’s disease. His office is located halfway between Dulles International Airport and Washington Reagan Airport to accommodate the many national and international patients who seek his services.

Dr. Brendan Stack Treatment of Complex Neurological Syndroms with Dental Appliances

The FDA (US agency for the control and regulation of medocal prescription drugs and procedures) approves a clinical trial involving the use of a dental appliance for the treatment of Tourette’s Syndrome.

An article published on the journal Bone 1 confirms the finding of a team of French researchers that Botox injections cause bone loss in rats and permanent damage to the jaw bone and condyles.

Articles on the effect of bite on Brain Function:

Hard Food Suppresses Pain Propensity

Soft Feeding Inhibits Neurogenesis

Occlusion and Brain Function

Effect of Tooth Loss on Cholinergic Neurons

Effect on Chewing on Memory

Effect of Implants on Brain Function

Short Dental Arch and Brain Blood Flow


The published articles below strongly warrant further research into these areas:

1) Epidemiological, Large Population, Literature Review, and Meta-Analysis

Occlusal patterns in patients with idiopathic scoliosis. American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, (2006).130(5), 629-633. Ben-Bassat, Y., Yitschaky, M., Kaplan, L., & Brin, I.
Scoliosis and dental occlusion: a review of the literature. Scoliosis, 6, 15. Saccucci, M., Tettamanti, L., Mummolo, S., Polimeni, A., Festa, F., & Tecco, S. (2011).
Clinical association between teeth malocclusions, wrong posture and ocular convergence disorders: an epidemiological investigation on primary school children. BMC pediatrics,(2013).13(1). Silvestrini-Biavati, A., Migliorati, M., Demarziani, E., Tecco, S., Silvestrini-Biavati, P., Polimeni, A., & Saccucci, M.
Co-ocurrence of the idiopathic scoliosis and the malocclusion– early results. Scoliosis (2012). Tyrakowski, M., Laskowska, M., Czubak, J., & Olczak-Kowalczyk, D. .

2) Oralsomatic System – Biomechanical / Musculoskeletal Structure and Posture

Effects of different jaw relations on postural stability in human subjects. Neuroscience Letters, 356(3), 228-230. Bracco, P., Deregibus, A., & Piscetta, R. (2004)
The relationship between the stomatognathic system and body posture. Clinics (Sao Paulo, Brazil), 64(1), 61-66.Cuccia, A., & Caradonna, C. (2009).
Radiographic measurement of the cervical spine in patients with temporomandibular dysfunction. Archives of Oral Biology, 55(9), 670-678. De Farias Neto, J. P., De Santana, J. M., De Santana-Filho, V. J., Quintans-Junior, L. J., De Lima Ferreira, A. P., & Bonjardim, L. R. (2010).
Forward head posture: Its structural and functional influence on the stomatognathic system, a conceptual study. Cranio, 14(1), 71-80. Gonzalez, H. E., & Manns, A. (1996).
Head posture and cervicovertebral and craniofacial morphology in patients with craniomandibular dysfunction. Cranio : the journal of craniomandibular practice, 10(3), 173-177; discussion 178. Huggare, J. A., & Raustia, A. M. (1992).
Neuromuscular dentistry: Occlusal diseases and posture. Journal of Oral Biology and Craniofacial Research, 3(3), 146-150. Khan, M. T., Verma, S. K., Maheshwari, S., Zahid, S. N., & Chaudhary, P. K. (2013).
The effects of manual therapy and exercise directed at the cervical spine on pain and pressure pain sensitivity in patients with myofascial temporomandibular disorders. Journal of oral rehabilitation, 36(9), 644-52. La Touche, R., Fernández-de-las-Peñas, C., Fernández-Carnero, J., Escalante, K., Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, S., Paris-Alemany, A., & Cleland, J. A. (2009).
Beziehungen zwischen kieferorthopädischen und orthopädischen Befunden, Manuelle Medizin, 38(6), 346-350. Lippold, C., Ehmer, U., & Bos, L. van den. (2000).
The effect of dental occlusal disturbances on the curvature of the vertebral spine in rats. Cranio®, 33(3), 217-227. Ramirez-Yanez, G. O., Mehta, L., & Mehta, N. R. (2015).
Head posture and malocclusions. European journal of orthodontics, 20(6), 685-693. Solow, B., & Sonnesen, L. (1998).
The effect of occlusal alteration and masticatory imbalance on the cervical spine. European Journal of Orthodontics, 25(5), 457-463. Shimazaki, T., Motoyoshi, M., Hosoi, K., & Namura, S. (2003).
Correlation between interdental occlusal plane and plantar arches. An EMG study. Bulletin du Groupement international pour la recherche scientifique en stomatologie & odontologie, 44(1), 10-13. Valentino, B., Melito, F., Aldi, B., & Valentino, T.

3) Oralsomatic System – Neurological

Occlusal-masticatory function and learning and memory: Immunohistochemical, biochemical, behavioral and electrophysiological studies in rats. Japanese Dental Science Review. Hirai, T., Kang, Y., Koshino, H., Kawanishi, K., Toyoshita, Y., Ikeda, Y., & Saito, M. (2010).
Shortened dental arch and cerebral regional blood volume: An experimental pilot study with optical topography. Cranio – Journal of Craniomandibular Practice, 27(2), 94-100. Miyamoto, I., Yoshida, K., & Bessho, K. (2009).
Hard-food mastication suppresses complete Freundʼs adjuvant-induced nociception. Neuroscience, 120(4), 1081-1092. Ogawa, A., Morimoto, T., Hu, J. W., Tsuboi, Y., Tashiro, A., Noguchi, K., Nakagawa, H., et al. (2003).
Influence of tooth-loss and concomitant masticatory alterations on cholinergic neurons in rats: Immunohistochemical and biochemical studies. Neuroscience Research, 43(4), 373-379. Terasawa, H., Hirai, T., Ninomiya, T., Ikeda, Y., Ishijima, T., Yajima, T., Hamaue, N., et al. (2002).
Soft-diet feeding inhibits adult neurogenesis in hippocampus of mice. The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College, 50(3), 117-124. Yamamoto, T., Hirayama, A., Hosoe, N., Furube, M., & Hirano, S. (2009).
Occlusion and brain function: mastication as a prevention of cognitive dysfunction. Journal of oral rehabilitation, 37(8), 624-640. Ono, Y., Yamamoto, T., Kubo, K.-ya, & Onozuka, M. (2010).

4) Oralsomatic System – Balance, Propioception, and Visual

Saccadic reaction times during isometric voluntary contraction of the shoulder girdle elevators and vibration stimulation to the trapezius. European journal of applied physiology, 85(6), 527-532. Fujiwara, K., Kunita, K., Toyama, H., & Miyaguchi, A. (2001).
Visual proprioceptive control of standing in human infants. Perception & Psychophysics. Lee, D. N., & Aronson, E. (1974).
Postural control in children with strabismus: Effect of eye surgery. Neuroscience Letters, 501(2), 96-101. Legrand, A., Quoc, E. B., Vacher, S. W., Ribot, J., Lebas, N., Milleret, C., & Bucci, M. P. (2011).
Properties of eye movements induced by activation of neck muscle proprioceptors. Graefeʼs Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, 234(11), 703-709. Lennerstrand, G., Han, Y., & Velay, J. L. (1996).
Visual contributions to postural stability in older adults. Gerontology, 46(6), 306-310. Lord, S. R., & Menz, H. B.
Effects of a two-diopter vertical prism on posture. Neuroscience Letters, 423(3), 236-240. Matheron, E., Lê, T. T., Yang, Q., & Kapoula, Z. (2007).
Prism adaptation improves postural imbalance in neglect patients. Neuroreport, 25(5), 307-11. Nijboer, T. C. W., Olthoff, L., Van der Stigchel, S., & Visser-Meily, J. M. a. (2014).

4) Oralsomatic System – Gastroesophageal, Respiratory, and Speech Production

Parameters of an optimal physiological state of the masticatory system: The results of a survey of practitioners using computerized measurement devices. Cranio. Cooper, B. C. (2004).
The role of bioelectronic instrumentation in the documentation and management of temporomandibular disorders. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology, oral radiology, and endodontics, 83(1), 91-100. Cooper, B. C. (1997).

5) Treatment Phase 1: Orthotic and Intraoral Orthopedic

Establishing of a Temporomandibular Physiological State with Neuromuscular Orthosis Treatment Affects Redcution of TMD Symptoms in 313 Patients Cooper, B., & Kleinberg, I.
Case Series of an Intraoral Balancing Appliance Therapy on Subjective Symptom Severity and Cervical Spine Alignment, Lee, Young Jun, Lee, J. K., Jung, S. C., Lee, H.-woo, Yin, C. S., & Lee, Young Jin. (2013).
Influence of the vertical dimension in the treatment of myofascial pain-dysfunction syndrome. The Journal of prosthetic dentistry. Manns, A., Miralles, R., Santander, H., & Valdivia, J. (1983).
Therapeutic effects of functional orthodontic appliances on cervical spine posture: a retrospective cephalometric study. Head & face medicine, 10, 7. Ohnmeiß, M., Kinzinger, G., Wesselbaum, J., & Korbmacher-Steiner, H. M. (2014).
Effect of occlusal support by implant prostheses on brain function. Journal of Prosthodontic Research, 55(4), 206-213. Okamoto, N. (2011).
Evaluation of craniofacial effects during rapid maxillary expansion through combined in vivo/in vitro and finite element studies. European Journal of Orthodontics, 30(5), 437-448. Provatidis, C. G., Georgiopoulos, B., Kotinas, a, & McDonald, J. P. (2008).

6) Treatment Phase 2: Orthodontic – Sports, Performance, and Aesthetics

Gnathological postural treatment in a professional basketball player: a case report and an overview of the role of dental occlusion on performance. Annali di stomatologia, 3(2), 51-8. Baldini, A., Beraldi, A., Nota, A., Danelon, F., Ballanti, F., & Longoni, S. (2012).

7) Oralsomatic System Anatomy: Descriptive

Anatomic relation between the nuchal ligament (ligamentum nuchae) and the spinal dura mater in the craniocervical region. Clinical Anatomy, 15(3), 182-185. Dean, N. A., & Mitchell, B. S. (2002).

Anatomic relation between the rectus capitis posterior minor muscle and the dura mater. Spine, 20(23), 2484-2486. Hack, G. D., Koritzer, R. T., Robinson, W. L., Hallgren, R. C., & Greenman, P. E. (1995).

8) Historical

Historical overview of spinal deformities in ancient Greece. Scoliosis, 4, 6. Vasiliadis, E. S., Grivas, T. B., & Kaspiris, A. (2009).


The published articles below explore the link between neurological movement disorders and dental occlusion, TMJ and jaw. We could not find downloadable versions.

Peripherally induced oromandibular dystonia
Sankhla C, Lai EC, Jankovic J. , J Neurol Neurosurg Psychia- try 1998;65(5):722–8.

Atypical and typical cranial dystonia following dental procedures
Schrag A, Bhatia KP, Quinn NP, Marsden CD. Mov Disord 1999;14(3):492–6.

Clinical signs of temporo-mandibular joint internal derangement in adults. An epidemiologic study
Lundh H, Westesson PL. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol 1991;72(6):637–41.

The Central Nervous System: Structure and Function, 3rd edition
Brodal PR. . New York, NY: Oxford University Press; 2004.

Excitability changes in human hand motor area induced by voluntary teeth clenching are dependent on muscle properties
Takahashi M, Ni Z, Yamashita T, et al. Exp Brain Res 2006;171(2):272–7

Inhibitory effect of the Jen-drassik maneuver on the stretch reflex
Nardone A, Schieppati M. Neuroscience 2008;156(3):607–17

Sensory tricks in cervical dystonia: Perceptual dysbalance of parietal cortex modulates frontal motor programming
Numann M, Magyar-Lehmann S, Reiners K, Erbguth F, Leenders KL. Ann Neurol 2000;47(3): 322–8.

Sensory trick in hemichorea-hemiballism and in Parkinson’s disease tremor
Lewitt PA, Gostkowski MT. Mov Disord 2010;25(9):1312–3.

Geste antagonistes in idiopathic lower cranial dystonia
Lo SE, Gelb M, Frucht SJ. Mov Disord 2007;22(7):1012–

17 thoughts on “Resources

  1. Pingback: The Molar Lever | Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  2. Pingback: Iatrogenic Damage: When the Dentist is a Butcher | Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  3. Pingback: Principles of Splint Therapy | Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  4. Pingback: Treatment of TMD with the Molar Lever | Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  5. Pingback: Protocol for the Treatment of Cervical Dystonia | Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  6. Pingback: The ALF – Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  7. Pingback: About Bruxism – Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  8. Pingback: Neurological Rehab for Dystonia – Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  9. Pingback: Cervical Dystonia or Spasmodic Torticollis: Positive Evolution after Neurophysiological Treatment – Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  10. Pingback: Bio-Mechanichs of Dystonia – Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  11. Pingback: Frozen Shoulder and Forward Head Posture: the Bio-Mechanical Cause – Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  12. Pingback: How to – Rehab for Upper Cervical Instability – Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  13. Pingback: Protocol for the Treatment of Dystonia – Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  14. Pingback: Yoga and Postural Rehab for Dystonia – Bio-Mechanical Dystonia

  15. Some of the links under “1) Epidemiological, Large Population, Literature Review, and Meta-Analysis” do not work anymore. I was hopping to show this whole blog especially the resources to a person that could lets say change things.


Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s